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3.3.2 Non-financial methods of motivation

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Job rotation is when employees move between different roles in the business.

For example, retail workers may rotate between the shop floor, stock room, serving customers on the till or dealing with customer complaints.



“A change is as good as a rest”, which is a proverb that means that doing something different can be seen as refreshing or relaxing and can be seen as taking a break from normal duties.

However, job rotation prevents employees from specialising in one thing, meaning that they don’t have the time to become really good at one job.
Job enlargement is when a business expands an employee’s duties they complete as part of their contract. Essentially, this means giving them more jobs to do. The job roles are usually on the same level of the hierarchy and do not give the employee more authority.

For example, a cleaner in a fast food restaurant could have their job enlarged to include greeting and welcoming customers, handing out baloons, etc.


Job enlargement can reduce employee fatigue as they are not completing the same repetitive tasks over again.

However, the employees may rush to complete all the tasks, resulting in lower quality of reduced efficiency as they are not completing all tasks to the best of their ability.
Job enrichment is about giving employees greater responsibility and more authority if required. Herzberg states that employees should be given complex duties that challenge and engages employees so they are greater motivated to achieve.

For example, an apprentice on a building site may start out with small duties and such as working alongside someone more experienced, then have their role gradually increased so they are completing tasks independently gradually getting greater responsibility.



Exam tip: enlargement = more sideways duties, enrichment = upwards responsibility.
Training is the process of educating employees so they are better able to accomplish their duties. Employees can also be trained upward with the prospect of promotion in the future. This motivates employees as it shows the business is invested in their future.
Workers are not just concerned with money but could be better motivated by having their social needs met whilst at work. Being part of a team of people working on a task makes people more motivated as they take on duties when compared to working independently. Teamwork also means employees’ social needs are met and allows splitting of duties and focus on one part of a job.
Empowerment means giving workers the responsibility to work on their own and make decisions on how they approach a task. It gives workers autonomy, meaning they can act independently and then be held accountable for decisions they make. Empowerment is like delegation by giving workers responsibility without actually handing down (delegating) tasks.

3.3.1 Financial methods of motivation

4.1.5 Customer Service